About the origin and composition of crude oil

What is crude oil

Crude oil is a liquid mineral resource excavated from oil fields. It is a blackish-brown, viscous liquid.

Refining crude oil turns it into petroleum, from which it becomes fuel such as gasoline, light oil, heavy oil, kerosene, raw material for synthetic fibers, rubber for tires, rubber, plastic, shampoo and detergents, etc.


How can crude oil be made?

What is crude oil made of? There are various theories about this and it has not been elucidated yet.

The most dominant theory at present is that dead bodies such as plankton and algae that have died millions of years ago have settled on the seabed with earth and sand and turned into liquids and gases by geothermal heat and strong pressure.

Another theory is that hydrocarbons generated by the effects of radiation emitted from the Earth’s inner core may be transformed into oil under high heat and pressure.

It has also been discovered that bacteria that break down petroleum produce crude oil in situations where there is no oil or oxygen, and this is considered to be the generation of crude oil.


Human and crude oil history

Evidence remains that crude oil was used from ancient Egyptian civilization.

Egyptian civilization is famous for mummies. This mummy also used asphalt as a preservative and as a fuel for lights. Many people think that crude oil can be taken from deep underground, but at this time it seems that crude oil that oozed out to the surface was used.

In the fourth century, people began excavating and extracting oil, but the revolution in oil extraction began in 1859.

In the United States, a machine for drilling oil wells was developed. This has enabled the large-scale extraction of crude oil.


About the components of crude oil

The main component of crude oil is a mixture of various liquid hydrocarbons, each of which has a different boiling point chemically. I wrote that various liquid hydrocarbons are mixed, but the mixed hydrocarbons are also various, and the content components differ slightly depending on the region where they can be obtained.

Pennsylvania crude oil, once famous for engine oils, is primarily composed of “paraffinic hydrocarbons”. In addition to Pennsylvania crude oil, the same North American crude oil is characterized by a high content of paraffinic hydrocarbons.

The Middle East crude oil currently imported by Japan is different from North American crude oil in that it contains many aromatics, and this crude oil is useful as a raw material for plastics and the like.

In recent years, the shale oil revolution has led to the popularization of North American crude oil on the market.However, this crude oil is mainly composed of paraffinic hydrocarbons as described earlier, so aromatics are more expensive than crude oil prices.


What is the shale oil revolution?

Shale oil is a type of crude oil. It is located deeper than 2,000 meters below the ground, and it was said that it could not be extracted by conventional mining methods. Is now possible. This will reduce US natural gas imports and lower domestic prices. This is the shale oil revolution.

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